One notable example is a case argued a few years back in the Supreme Court concerning admissions to the University of Michigan. The school had a policy of rating potential applicants on a point system. Being a minority student earned you more than twice as many points as achieving a perfect SAT score. Three white students sued citing this as raced-based discrimination. School officials said that diversity is desirable and affirmative action is the only way to achieve true diversity. Another notable case in 2009 involved firefighters whose captain's exams were thrown out after it was determined not enough minorities passed. Several other cases involving affirmative action have followed similar arguments.
Affirmative action, the set of public policies and initiatives designed to help eliminate past and present discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED.
- SO LOOKING RETROSPECTIVELY, AFFIRMATIVE ACTION HAS BEEN A HUGE SUCCESS GIVEN ITS ORIGINAL STATED PURPOSE. THE OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN MET IN EVERY RESPECT; DESEGREGATED PUBLIC EDUCATION, VOTING , ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION, LOANS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION, LOANS TO START BUSINESS', WORK PLACE HIRING, WORK PLACE PROMOTIONS, TO ORGANIZATIONS ADVOCATING ON BEHALF OF BLACKS, TO ELECTED OFFICIALS FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENT ALL THE WAY TO THE OVAL OFFICE,TO ORGANIZATIONS IN THE U.S. CONGRESS (CONGRESSIONAL BLACK CAUCUS) , BLACK HISTORY MONTH...I could continue , but you get my point.
THE PLAYING FIELD HAS BEEN
- Originally, civil rights programs were enacted to help African Americans become full citizens of the United States. The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution made slavery illegal; the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equal protection under the law; the Fifteenth Amendment forbids racial discrimination in access to voting. The 1866 Civil Rights Act guarantees every citizen "the same right to make and enforce contracts ... as is enjoyed by white citizens ... "
- In 1896, the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson upheld a "separate, but equal" doctrine . The decision marked the end of the post-Civil War "reconstruction" (The South is SILL UN reconstructed) era as Jim Crow laws spread across the South.
- In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802 which outlawed segregationist hiring policies by defense-related industries which held federal contracts. Roosevelt's signing of this order was a direct result of efforts by Black trade union leader, A. Philip Randolph.
- During 1953 President Harry S. Truman's Committee on Government Contract Compliance urged the Bureau of Employment Security "to act positively and affirmatively to implement the policy of nondiscrimination . . . ."
- The 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education overturned Plessy v. Ferguson.
- The actual phrase "affirmative action" was first used in President John F. Kennedy's 1961 Executive Order 10925 which requires federal contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin." The same language was later used in Lyndon Johnson's 1965 Executive Order 11246.
- In 1967, Johnson expanded the Executive Order to include affirmative action requirements to benefit women. (HENCE IF YOU ARE A MALE OF EUROPEAN DECENT, YOU ARE STUCK LIKE CHUCK)
- Other equal protection laws passed to make discrimination illegal were the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Title II and VII of which forbid racial discrimination in "public accommodations" and race and sex discrimination in employment, respectively; and the 1965 Voting Rights Act adopted after Congress found "that racial discrimination in voting was an insidious and pervasive evil which had been perpetuated in certain parts of the country through unremitting and ingenious defiance of the Constitution." 50 years later we have an elected Black PresidentObama, who was supported by Blacks 24 to 1.